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Sheet metal:

A metallurgic product, metallic tablet or band, produced by hot rolling or cold rolling from various materials, for example from steel, copper, tin, lead, brass or aluminium. Sheet metal is produced as thick (over 5 mm thickness), medium (3 – 5 mm) and thin (below 3 mm thickness). Common sheet metal is produced by rolling as a tablet or as strip. Surface of sheet metal can be black, naturally scaled, stained, polished, cold rolled, glossy, plated (tinned, zinced), also with convex pattern, perforated or corrugated.





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Bridge Steel constructions:

Structural steel constructions, assembled at construction site from elements created in bridge-production plant. Used for example for industrial, bridge, water (dam), residential and tower constructions.

Deep Drawing:

A sheet metal forming process (especially of those made of steel), used for creating various items, such as vases, tubes, hulls, containers, bodyworks and so on.

MAG welding:

MAG (abbr. for metal active gas) welding is type of arc welding in protective CO2 atmosphere. Electric arc burns between metallic electrode (welding wire of 0,8 – 2,4 mm in diameter) and welded material in CO2 atmosphere, which partially oxidizes to create small amount of slag. Welding is carried out using direct current in semiautomatic of fully automatic mode.

Mechanical engineering:

Complex of industrial branches for production of machines, devices, production units and tools for all fields of economic sectors as well as consumer products. Mechanical engineering production is focused mainly on metal products, parts and mechanisms fabricated with engineering processes (forming, machining, welding) and on assembly and completion of items and devices containing parts and accessories produced in different fields of industry. Mechanical engineering forms material foundation and technical facilities for all national economy. The advancement of mechanical engineering is crucial for productivity of economy, technological progress, nations’ defensive capabilities and living standard. Engineering was developed from original manufacture production since 18th century. Transition from manufacture small-scale to industrial mass-scale production became foundation process for industrial revolution. First country with developed mechanical engineering was Great Britain, since half of 19th century has mechanical engineering greatly developed also in Germany and some time later in USA. In Czech region has developed textile industry forced an advancement of mechanical engineering industry, which eventually widened its production to steam engines, machine tools, devices used in food-processing industry, mining, metallurgy and even weapon production (Plzeň, Vítkovice). During years 1918-1939 mechanical engineering became leading economic sector of Czechoslovakia and significantly partook in nations export. Effectiveness of mechanical engineering is conditioned by concentration of production and its specialization, which is rendered possible by efficient division of labour and cooperation on an international scope.

Precision sheet metal cut:

Precision sheet metal cut is steel part ready for welding. Separation (cutting) or division of material is done by melting or cutting in contraction joint. Required temperature is achieved by using incandescent electric wire (division of some plastics), electric arc or plasma beam (metal cutting). During steel oxy-fuel cutting is the split heated to its ignition temperature by oxy-acetylene flame, so called cutting torch. For cutting of any kind of metal electric arc with heavily coated carbon or tungsten electrode can be used.


Metal sheets are produced on rolling machines with smooth cylinders from flat billets. Firstly is the metal rolled in a cross-direction in order to obtain required width and then is the sheet metal turned by 90° and is rolled again in order to achieve even thickness across whole plate and levelled material properties in both directions of rolling. Sheet metal is produced in both thin and thick form, with the dividing border being 4 mm thickness. Sheet metal can be tin-covered, zinc-covered, lead-covered or varnished. Cold rolling method is used to produce sheet metal with smooth surface and in precise dimensions, even though the material used for this method is hot-rolled metal sheet. Deep-drawn sheets are metal sheets with fine mechanical properties, e.g. cold-rolled sheets.

Shaped steel:

Pipe steel of more complex shapes, produced by hot rolling or cold rolling methods from steel types designated for use in civil engineering, mechanical engineering or from tool steel.

Sheet metal:

A metallurgic product, metallic tablet or band, produced by hot rolling or cold rolling from various materials, for example from steel, copper, tin, lead, brass or aluminium. Sheet metal is produced as thick (over 5 mm thickness), medium (3 – 5 mm) and thin (below 3 mm thickness). Common sheet metal is produced by rolling as a tablet or as strip. Surface of sheet metal can be black, naturally scaled, stained, polished, cold rolled, glossy, plated (tinned, zinced), also with convex pattern, perforated or corrugated.


Alloy of iron with carbon or many other elements. Its characteristic features are good malleability and ductility. According to production method are steel types divided into several categories, for example converter steel, Siemens-Martin steel, electrosteel. According to its chemical composition we distinguish carbon and alloy steel. Carbon steel contains at least 1,8% of carbon, several tenths of a percent of manganese, possibly silicium and less than 0,06% of phosphorus and sulphur. Mechanical properties of carbon steel are determined by portion of containing carbon. Alloy steel types mostly contain Chromium, Manganese, Nickel, Molybdenum, Vanadium, Tungsten, Titanium and Aluminium. Depending on its use we distinguish structural steel, tool steel and special kinds of steel. Structural steel kinds have good mechanical properties, very good ductility and adequate technological properties, especially weldability. Tool steel is used for its hardness, good cutting properties (even during higher temperatures). Special kinds of steel are usually higher-grade alloys, most frequently Chromium, Nickel, Molybdenum and Manganese alloys. According to its type and amount of added elements gain steel new properties, such as better corrosion resistance, temperature resistance, thermal-stability or special physical properties – non-magnetism, low coefficient of thermal expansion and so on.

Steel bridge:

Bridge made of steel parts. Steel bridges are divided in these categories: girder bridges (web-plate girder bridges, composite bridges, segmental bridge, truss bridges), arch bridges, suspension bridge and cable-stayed bridges. Web-plate girder bridges are constructed in such way that the girders create only vertical pressure on bridge pillars. Structure of such bridge consists of bridge deck (consisting of girder-spars and crossbearers), which holds the road, then of main beams, on which cross beams are laid, then of lateral bracing, wind braces and bearing. Among other kinds of girder bridges belong composite bridges, with main beams on which is bridge deck placed, segmental bridges, which have closed-section main beams from thin sheet metal, and truss bridges, whose beams consist of lattice frames. All kinds of steel girder bridges can have either simple beams or composite beams. Arch steel bridges have their main beam arched and their bridge deck is either supported by the main beam or is hanging on the beam in case the main beam is situated above bridge deck. Suspension bridges have as supporting element high-strength cable suspended between towers, on which the bridge deck is hung. Cable-stayed bridges have as main supporting element a girder which stretch is reduced by sideward suspension cables through pylons. Bridges with length over 550m have been built only as suspension bridges.

Steel construction elements:

Construction elements produced from steel

Steel hall:

Building with free inner space for industrial, cultural, sport, exhibition, transportation (hangars, train stations) and so on. Bearing construction of such halls consists of steel pillars, often bearing crane track and roof trusses, on which lies roof covering. Steel hall is bordered by peripheral casing. Industrial production halls are single-bodied or multi-bodied.

Steel truss:

A construction part transferring stress from roof into pillars. It determines shape of a roof (lean-to roof, double sloping roof, arc roof). A steel truss can be of lattice-girder or solid construction.

Structural steel:

Carbon or alloy steel used for production of machine components, building constructions, appliances and so on. Due to its production volume, variety of use and material properties has structural steel become the most important group of technical materials.

Surface treatment of metals:

Technology or measure serving as corrosion protection, also used for visual improvement or improvement of mechanical properties of metal objects by means of metal surface machining, polishing or creating a protective layer. The protective layer can be: a) metallic – applied by using galvanization process, by metallic reduction without using electric current, maceration, metallization, vacuum metallization, diffusion of other metal (sheradizing, alitation, alumetation, inchromation), plating b) non-metal inorganic – e.g. oxide layer, created by metallic oxidation during heating, burnishing, chromatization, eloxal-coating, phosphate coating, passivation, shotcreting, enamelling c) non-metallic inorganic – for example coating with paint matter, coating with plastic layer, reveting with panels, foil sticking, fluidization d) combined – produced by combination of multiple methods of metal surface treatment, for example phosphate coating and paintwork.


Series of technological processes of permanent jointing of machine parts or production of full constructions from simple-shaped parts (metallurgic semiproducts, forgings, cast pieces). Metals or plastics are welded under effect of high temperatures, high pressure or both effects at the same time. In order to create a weld joint additional welding materials (of same or similar composition with good metallurgic connectivity to the original compound) are sometimes being used. During special welding is often used protective environment for the purpose of creating a higher-quality seam. During work the welder uses protective equipment for protection against intensive radiance of electric arc, electric current and heat emissions, such as welding helmet (mask, shield) with special dark-blue glass, leather gloves with long sleeves, leather or asbestos apron, holding tongs, glasses and suction system (cabin or elastic hose with local suction). See also Summary of welding technological processes.

Welding in protective gas atmosphere:

Electric arc welding process, during which are both electric arc and welded metal surrounded by shielding gas. Depending on used gas we distinguish MAG welding, WIG welding and welding with melting electrode using argon as shielding gas.

Welding under effect of heat and pressure:

Technological welding processes, during which are joint surfaces melted under effect of heat and pressure.


Simple individual product or constructional unit created by welding, which undergoes further technological processing and adjustments.

WIG welding:

WIG (abbr. for wolfram inert gas) welding is welding process with non-melting tungsten electrode using argon as shielding gas. Electric arc burns between tungsten electrode and welded material in argon atmosphere, which protects the metal from oxidation. Welding is usually done using alternating electric current. Method is suitable for welding of corrosion- and heat-resistant steel, light metals and their alloys, brass, nickel and its alloys.